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You're Busted! And continuing so for about a quarter of an hour the said Florence Newton sitting by herself all that while pinching her own hands and arms, as was sworn by some that observed her , the Maid was ordered to be carried out of Court, and taken into a House.
Whereupon the Court having taken notice that the Maid said she had been very well when the said Florence was in Bolts, and ill again when out of them, till they were again put on her, demanded of the Jaylor if she were in Bolts or no, to which he said she was not, only manacled.
Upon which order was given to put on her Bolts, and upon putting them on she cried out that she was killed, she was undone, she was spoiled, why do you torment me [Pg ] thus?
And then came in a messenger from the Maid, and informed the Court the Maid was well. At which Florence immediately and cholerickly uttered these words, She is not well yet!
And being demanded, how she knew this, she denied she said so, though many in Court heard her say the words, and she said, if she did, she knew not what she said, being old and disquieted, and distracted with her sufferings.
But the Maid being reasonably well come to herself, was, before the Court knew anything of it, sent out of Town to Youghall, and so was no further examined.
And Thomas Harrison swore that he had observed the said Florence peep at her, and use that motion with her hands, and saw [Pg ] the Maid fall immediately upon that motion, and heard the words, Now she is down , uttered.
Whereupon she said she could say it, and had often said it, and the Court being desired by her to hear her say it, gave her leave; and four times together after these words, Give us this day our daily bread , she continually said, As we forgive them , leaving out altogether the words, And forgive us our trespasses , upon which the Court appointed one near her to teach her the words she left out.
And being often pressed to utter the words as they were repeated to her, she did not. And being asked the reason, she said she was old and had a bad memory; and being asked how her memory served her so well for other [Pg ] parts of the Prayer, and only failed her for that, she said she knew not, neither could she help it.
That sometimes the Maid would be reading in a Bible, and on a sudden he hath seen the Bible struck out of her Hand into the middle of the Room, and she immediately cast into a violent Fit.
And then she said, that there were others, as Goody Halfpenny and Goody Dod, in Town, that could do these things as well as she, and that it might be one of these that had done the Maid wrong.
And there was a very great noise, as if some body with Bolts and Chains had been running up and down the Room, and they asked her what it was she spoke to, and what it was that made the noise; and she said she saw nothing, neither did she speak, and if she did, it was she knew not what.
Greatrix, and Mr. Blackwall went to the Maid, and Mr. Greatrix and he had read of a way to [Pg ] discover a Witch, which he would practise.
And so they sent for the Witch, and set her on a Stool, and a Shoemaker with a strong Awl endeavoured to stick it into the Stool, but could not till the third time.
And then they bade her come off the Stool, but she said she was very weary and could not stir. Then two of them pulled her off, and the Man went to pull out his Awl, and it dropped into his hand with half an Inch broke off the blade of it, and they all looked to have found where it had been stuck, but could find no place where any entry had been made by it.
Then Mr. And when she came to herself he asked her what had troubled her; and she said [Pg ] Gammer Newton. And the Deponent saith, Why, she was not there.
Yes , said she, I saw her by my bedside. The Deponent then asked her the original of all, which she related from the time of her begging the Beef, and after kissing, and so to that time.
That then they caused the Maid to be got up, and sent for Florence Newton, but she refused to come, pretending she was sick, though it indeed appeared she was well.
Then the Mayor of Youghall came in, and spoke with the Maid, and then sent again and caused Florence Newton to be brought in, and immediately the Maid fell into her Fit far more violent, and three times as long as at any other time, and all the time the Witch was in the Chamber the Maid cried out continually of her being hurt here and there, but never named the Witch: but as soon as she was removed, then she cried out against her by the name of Gammer Newton, and this for several times.
And still when the Witch was out of the Chamber the Maid would desire to go to Prayers, and he found good affections of her in time of Prayer, but when the Witch was brought in again, [Pg ] though never so privately, although she could not possibly, as the Deponent conceives, see her, she would be immediately senseless, and like to be strangled, and so would continue till the Witch was taken out, and then though never so privately carried away she would come again to her senses.
That afterwards Mr. Greatrix, Mr. Then he likewise examined the other two Women, but they utterly denied it, and were content to abide any trial; whereupon he caused Dod, Halfpenny, and Newton to be carried to the Maid; and [Pg ] he told her that these two Women, or one of them, were said by Gammer Newton to have done her hurt, but she said, No, no, they are honest Women, but it is Gammer Newton that hurts me, and I believe she is not far off.
But April following she bewitched one David Jones to death by kissing his hand through the Grate of the Prison, for which she was indicted at Cork Assizes, and the evidence is as follows:.
To which she answered she knew not; whereupon he replied, I and Frank Beseley have been standing Centinel over the Witch all night.
To which the said Elenor said, Why, what hurt is that? To which she answered, The Lord forbid! Then David Jones began to teach her, but she could not or would not say it, though often taught it.
Whereupon he went to visit him, [and was told by him that the Hag] had him by the Hand, and was pulling off his Arm.
And he said, Do you not see the old hag How she pulls me? About fourteen days languishing he died. It would seem that the witch was indicted upon two separate charges, viz.
The case must have created considerable commotion in Youghal, and was considered so important that the Attorney-General went down to prosecute, but unfortunately there is no record of the verdict.
If found guilty and we can have little doubt but that she was , she would have been sentenced to death in pursuance of the Elizabethan Statute, section 1.
Many of the actors in the affair were persons of local prominence, and can be identified. He was born in , and died in He joined the Parliamentary Army, and when it was disbanded in , became a country magistrate.
At the Restoration he was deprived of his offices, and then gave himself up to a life of [Pg ] contemplation.
He kept the matter quiet for some time, but at last communicated it to his wife, who jokingly bade him try his power on a boy in the neighbourhood.
Accordingly he laid his hands on the affected parts with prayer, and within a month the boy was healed. Gradually his fame spread, until patients came to him from various parts of England as well as Ireland.
In he received an invitation from Lord Conway to come to Ragley to cure his wife of perpetual headaches.
He stayed at Ragley about three weeks, and while there he entertained his hosts with the story of Florence Newton and her doings; although he did not succeed in curing Lady Conway, yet many persons in the neighbourhood benefited by his treatment.
He took no fees, and rejected cases which were manifestly incurable. In modern times the [Pg ] cures have been reasonably attributed to animal magnetism.
He was buried beside his father at Affane, co. Richard Myres was Bailiff of Youghal in , and Mayor in and He was sworn in a freeman at [Pg ] large in , and appears to have been presented by the Grand Jury in as a religious vagrant.
Furthermore, it seems possible to recover the name of the Judge who tried the case at the Cork Assizes.
Aston writ in the Margin, and then again W. Aston at the end of all, who in all likelihood must be some publick Notary or Record-Keeper.
On 3rd November he was appointed senior puisne Judge of the Chief Place, and died in Williams and the haunted house in Dublin—Apparitions seen in the air in co.
Tipperary—A clergyman and his wife bewitched to death—Bewitching of Mr. Moor—The fairy-possessed butler—A ghost instigates a prosecution—Supposed witchcraft in co.
Cork—The Devil among the Quakers. From the earliest times the Devil has made his mark, historically and geographically, in Ireland; the nomenclature of many places indicates that they are his exclusive property, while the antiquarian cannot be sufficiently thankful to him for depositing the Rock of Cashel where he did.
But here we must deal with a later period of his activity. A quaint tale comes to us from co. Tipperary of a man bargaining with his Majesty for the price of his soul, in which as usual the Devil is worsted by [Pg ] a simple trick, and gets nothing for his trouble.
Near Shronell in that county are still to be seen the ruins of Damerville Court, formerly the residence of the Damer family, and from which locality they took the title of Barons Milton of Shronell.
The first of the family to settle in Ireland, Joseph Damer, had been formerly in the service of the Parliament, but not deeming it safe to remain in England after the Restoration, came over to this country and, taking advantage of the cheapness of land at that time, purchased large estates.
It was evidently of this member of the family that the following tale is told. His Satanic Majesty greedily accepted the offer, and on the day appointed for the ratification of the bargain arrived with a sufficiency of bullion from the Bank of Styx—or whatever may be the name of the establishment below!
He was ushered into a room, in the middle of which stood the empty top-boot; into [Pg ] this he poured the gold, but to his surprise it remained as empty as before.
He hastened away for more gold, with the same result. Repeated journeys to and fro for fresh supplies still left the boot as empty as when he began, until at length in sheer disgust he took his final departure, leaving Damer in possession of the gold, and as well for a few brief years, at all events of that spiritual commodity he had valued at so little.
In process of time the secret leaked out. The wily Damer had taken the sole off the boot, and had then securely fastened the latter over a hole in the floor.
In the storey underneath was a series of large, empty cellars, in which he had stationed men armed with shovels, who were under instructions to remove each succeeding shower of gold, and so make room for more.
Another story  comes from Ballinagarde in co. Once upon a time Mr. Croker of Ballinagarde was out [Pg ] hunting, but as the country was very difficult few were able to keep up with the hounds.
The chase lasted all day, and late in the evening Croker and a handsome dark stranger, mounted on a magnificent black horse, were alone at the death.
The stranger was shown to a bedroom, and as the servant was pulling off his boots he saw that he had a cloven hoof. In the morning he acquainted his master with the fact, and both went to see the stranger.
A most remarkable instance of legal proceedings being instituted at the instigation [Pg ] of a ghost comes from the co.
Down in the year Presently there appeared a third at his elbow, apparently clad in a long white coat, having the appearance of one James Haddock, an inhabitant of Malone who had died about five years previously.
Taverner asked him why he spoke with him; he told him, because he was a man [Pg ] of more resolution than other men, and requested him to ride along with him in order that he might acquaint him with the business he desired him to perform.
Taverner refused, and, as they were at a cross-road, went his own way. The following night the ghost appeared again to him as he sat by the fire, and thereupon declared to him the reason for its appearance, and the errand upon which it wished to send him.
It bade him go to Eleanor Walsh, its widow, who was now married to one Davis, and say to her that it was the will of her late husband that their son David should be righted in the matter of a lease which the father had bequeathed to him, but of which the step-father had unjustly deprived him.
Taverner refused to do so, partly because [Pg ] he did not desire to gain the ill-will of his neighbours, and partly because he feared being taken for one demented; but the ghost so thoroughly frightened him by appearing to him every night for a month, that in the end he promised to fulfil its wishes.
He went to Malone, found a woman named Eleanor Walsh, who proved to be the wrong person, but who told him she had a namesake living hard by, upon which Taverner took no further trouble in the matter, and returned without delivering his message.
The same night he was awakened by something pressing upon him, and saw again the ghost of Haddock in a white coat, which asked him if he had delivered the message, to which Taverner mendaciously replied that he had been to Malone and had seen Eleanor Walsh.
Upon which the ghost looked with a more friendly air upon him, bidding him not to be afraid, and then vanished in a flash of brightness.
But having learnt the truth of the matter in some mysterious way, it again appeared, this time in a great fury, and threatened to tear him to pieces if he did [Pg ] not do as it desired.
It replied, Because he had not delivered the message; and withal repeated the threat of tearing him in pieces if he did not do so speedily: and so, changing itself into many prodigious Shapes, it vanished in white like a Ghost.
James South, advised him to go and deliver the message to the widow, which he accordingly did, and thereupon experienced great quietness of mind.
Two nights [Pg ] later the apparition again appeared, and on learning what had been done, charged him to bear the same message to the executors.
Taverner not unnaturally asked if Davis, the step-father, would attempt to do him any harm, to which the spirit gave a very doubtful response, but at length reassured him by threatening Davis if he should attempt anything to his injury, and then vanished away in white.
The following day Taverner was summoned before the Court of the celebrated Jeremy Taylor, Bishop of Down, who carefully examined him about the matter, and advised him the next time the spirit appeared to ask it the following questions: Whence are you?
Are you a good or a bad spirit? Where is your abode? What station do you hold? How are you regimented in the other world? What is the reason that you appear for the relief of your son in so small a matter, when so many widows and orphans are oppressed, and none from thence of their relations appear as you do to right them?
Feeling the coming presence [Pg ] of the apparition, and being unwilling to create any disturbance within doors, he and his brother went out into the courtyard, where they saw the spirit coming over the wall.
He told it what he had done, and it promised not to trouble him any more, but threatened the executors if they did not see the boy righted.
But it gave him no answer, but crawled on its hands and feet over the wall again, and so vanished in white with a most melodious harmony.
About five years later, when the story was forgotten, Costlet began to threaten the boy with an action, but, coming home drunk one night, he fell off his horse and was killed.
In the above there is no mention of the fate of Davis. The incident is vividly remembered in local tradition, from which many picturesque details are added, especially with reference to the trial, the subsequent righting of young David Haddock, and the ultimate punishment of Davis, on which points Glanvill is rather unsatisfactory.
According to this source,  Taverner or Tavney, as the name is locally pronounced felt something get up behind him as he was riding home, and from the eerie feeling that came over him, as well as from the mouldy smell of the grave that assailed his nostrils, he perceived that his companion was not of this world.
Finally the ghost urged Taverner to bring the case into Court, and it came up for [Pg ] trial at Carrickfergus. The Counsel for the opposite side browbeat Taverner for inventing such an absurd and malicious story about his neighbour Davis, and ended by tauntingly desiring him to call his witness.
Davis slunk away, and on his homeward road fell from his horse and broke his neck. In the following year, , a quaintly humorous story  of a most persistent and troublesome ghostly visitant comes from [Pg ] the same part of the world, though in this particular instance its efforts to right the wrong did not produce a lawsuit: the narrator was Mr.
Alcock, who appears in the preceding story. One David Hunter, who was neat-herd to the Bishop of Down Jeremy Taylor at his house near Portmore, saw one night, as he was carrying a log of wood into the dairy, an old woman whom he did not recognise, but apparently some subtle intuition told him that she was not of mortal mould, for incontinent he flung away the log, and ran terrified into his house.
She appeared again to him the next night, and from that on nearly every night for the next nine months. All this time the ghost afforded no indication as to the nature and object of her frequent appearances.
I lived here before the War, and had one son by my Husband; when he died I married a soldier, by whom I had several children which the former Son maintained, else we must all have starved.
He lives beyond the Ban-water; pray go to him and bid him dig under such a hearth, and there he shall find 28 s.
David Hunter told her he never knew her. But he deferred doing what the apparition bade him, with the result that she appeared the night after, as he lay in bed, and struck him on the shoulder very hard; at which he cried out, and reminded her that she had promised to do him no hurt.
She replied that was if he did her message; if not, she would kill him. He told her he could not go now, because the waters were out. She said that she was content that he should wait until they were abated; but charged him afterwards not to fail her.
Ultimately he did her errand, and [Pg ] afterwards she appeared and thanked him. An important witch-case occurred in Scotland in , the account of which is of interest to us as it incidentally makes mention of the fact that one of the guilty persons had been previously tried and condemned in Ireland for the crime of witchcraft.
Four women and one man were strangled and burnt at Paisley for having attempted to kill by magic Sir George Maxwell of Pollock. They had formed a wax image of him, into which the Devil himself had stuck the necessary pins; it was then turned on a spit before the fire, the entire band repeating in unison the name of him whose death they desired to compass.
All the people observed it, and cried out at the sight of it. A clergyman, the Rev. Daniel Williams evidently the man who was pastor of Wood Street, Dublin, and subsequently founded Dr.
She thereupon betook herself to a little house in Patrick Street, near the gate, but to no purpose. Certain ministers spent several nights in prayer with her, heard the strange sounds, but did not succeed in causing their cessation.
Finally the narrator, Williams, was called in, and came upon a night agreed to the house, where several persons had assembled. When I was at Prayer the Woman, kneeling by me, catched violently at my Arm, and afterwards told us that she saw a terrible Sight—but it pleased God there was no noise at all.
And from that Time God graciously freed her from all that Disturbance. Tipperary on 2nd March Then appeared a Fort, with somewhat like a Castle on the top of it; out of the sides of which, by reason of some clouds of smoak and a flash of fire suddenly issuing out, they concluded some shot to be made.
The Fort then was immediately divided in two parts, which were in an instant transformed into two exact Ships, like the other they had seen, with their heads towards each other.
They supposed the two last Ships were engaged, and fighting, for they saw the likeness of bullets rouling upon the sea, while they were both visible.
These also went northwards, as the former had done, the Bull first, holding [Pg ] his head downwards, then the Dog, and then the Chariot, till all sunk down one after another about the same place, and just in the same manner as the former.
These meteors being vanished, there were several appearances like ships and other things. The whole time of the vision lasted near an hour, and it was a very clear and calm evening, no cloud seen, no mist, nor any wind stirring.
All the phenomena came out of the West or Southwest, and all moved Northwards; they all sunk out of sight much about the same place.
Of the whole company there was not any one but saw all these things, as above-written, whose names follow:.
Allye, a minister, living near the place. Lieutenant Dunsterville, and his son. Grace, his son-in-law. Lieutenant Dwine. Dwine, his brother.
Christopher Hewelson. Richard Foster. Adam Hewelson. Bates, a schoolmaster. U svakom slucaju nas narednih godina ocekuju velike seobe naroda.
Svetska ekonomska recesija nam tek predstoji. Da li se u Srbiji ove teme uzimaju za ozbiljno? Da li se vec razmislja o tome, sta ce biti sa izbeglicama na nasoj teritoriji, kada Austrija i Nemacka zatvore svoje granice?
Da li drzavne institucije imaju kompetencije da se efikasno bave ovim pitanjima? Kako sam u prvoj recenici procitala americko "arapsko prolece" odmah sam prestala da citam.
The monarch's cupidity for gold was at first greatly excited, as appears from the following very remarkable conversation which took place between him and Bulmer: — " And shortly after Bulmer said that his majesty conceived so good an opinion of the mines, that he had them much in remembrance amongst others his great and mighty busynesses , esteeming them to be none of the smallest, pleas- ing unto God, nor the least that God had ordeyned for man within the earth.
It is thought fitting that Bulmer shall be a superiour pr chief thereof, becanse of his trust and skill, which was liked of by the lords of the counsell in Scotland.
Therefore, lett Bulmer procure, or move twenty-four gentle- men within England, of sufficient lands and livings, or any other his friends of Scotland, that shall be willing to be undertakers thereof, and to be adventurers towards the discovery thereof, and see that all these gentle- men be of such sufficiencie in lands, goods, or chattelis, as the worst be worth L.
And all such gentlemen to be moved to disburst L. Ten tons of the various metals were sent to England to be assayed, and were refined by Atkinson then a refiner in the Tower of London.
Bulmer soon gave up these works to pursue other mining speculations; for in the year Sir William Alexander, Thomas Foullis, and Paulo Pinto, a Portuguese, got a grant of the mine of Hilderston on pajring a tenth of the refined ore.
The vein, however, eventually failed. We may now advert to Atkinson himself, the author of the very curious account of the mines of Scotland. He had served an apprenticeship to a refiner in London of gold and silver, and was admitted a refiner in the Tower of London, A.
He afterwards was engaged in Devon- shire in refining silver from lead ore. He was taught his mining skill by B. He was afterwards tempted to leave his refining business, in order to explore gold mines in Scotland.
He probably, as Mr Laing Meason supposes, wanted money for the undertaking, and therefore wrote to his majesty ; and after comparing several of the king's acts to those erf David and Solomon, suggested the opening of the gold mines of Scot- IN SCOTLAND.
The Scots' gold mines were compared by him to God's treasure-house, and named Ophir gold for their goodness.
After this hypothesis he pays an extravagant, and almost profane compliment to King James, which he introduces by a sort of side-wind.
These rivers are also devided, by God's omnipotent power, into foure heads. The name of the second is called Short-clough water, upon Alwayne, within Clydsdale, upon Crawford Moore.
The name of the third river is Win- locke-head, or Wynlocke-water, upon Robbart Moore, within Nydsdale. The name of the fourth river is called Mannocke-water, upon Mannocke Moore, within Nydsdale.
He had already expended L. But it is now time to close this narrative. It appears that Sir Bevis Bulmer completely failed in his mining speculations, which was attributed to his having too many irons in the fire, and to his too great extravagance.
By such synister means he was impoverished, and followed other idle veniall vices to his dying day, that were not allowable of God nor man : and so once downe, aye downe ; and at last he died at Awstin- moore, in Ireland, in my debt L.
God forgive us all our sinnes! This curious history is now brought to a close. If these gold mines had been thought of in the year , it is not impossible but that their revival might have been contemplated, and that the minds of the mad projectors of that period might have been diverted from the golden mountains of Mexico to hunt for treasure on the cold and dreary plains of Crawford Moor.
The last project would have had this advan- tage, that it would have dispersed a few of the thousands which have been idly squandered away in distant speculations among our own coun- trymen.
IN SCOTLAND. The notes are highly valuable. They comprise, among various matters, a collection of early documents illustrative of the localities of other metals besides gold, said to have been found in Scotland.
We once were present at a juvenile exercise in the Latin tongue, where two of the disputants disagreed about the definition of a book, and where the president, in order to settle the question at once, with great solem- nity pronounced this axiom: — '' Liber est quicquid publici juris factum est.
Ergo: Mare liber est Porro Liber est quicquid publici juris factum est. Mulier vocata Mademoiselle Busk publici juris facta est quod prsesentium omnium testatur experientia.
Ergo: Mademoiselle Busk liber est. We need not add that the axiom was found somewhat too compre- hensive for. Written by Mr T.
ROMANCE OF HAVELOK THE DANE. We must speak more explicitly, as what we have to communicate may be a new piece of information to a great number of our readers.
Some years ago there was first in England, founded by the Earl Spencer and some other noblemen and gentlemen of high rank and great wealth, the above alluded to institution, under the name of the Roxburghe Chib, and the Earl Spencer has since been its president.
The professed purpose of this highly respectable body, is to print ancient unpublished MSS. It is, in some respects, fortunate that their choice has, in many cases, fallen on such MSS.
This would be particularly ungrateful in us, as we occasionally are fa- voured with a sight of what the rest of mankind never see.
Ought we not, O reader, " Sublimiyenre sidera vertice? We, however, understand from the conclusion of Mr MadderCs intro- duction, that Havelok is in a manner publishedy making thus an excep- tion from the general rule ; and we may say that we are glad of it, as Havelok will be highly interesting for many an inquisitive reader.
Mr Madden is entitled to a very high compliment for the care, assi- duity, and research, which he has bestowed on this work.
He has looked for information in most likely places, and collected it with taste and judg- ment. The introduction perhaps might have been a little abridged, but the glossary is excellent.
Mr Madden would, however, have found his work easier if he had been more intimately acquainted with some other ancient languages of nothern Europe besides old English; the Icelandic or, which is the same, the ancient Danish would in particular have been of great service for his purpose.
We have not either been able to discover that Mr Madden has noticed the peculiar dialect in which the romance is written. Upon the whole, we have in Mr Madden's very learned intro- duction looked in vain for remarks on that subject, which, of all subjects connected with the ancient romance literature, surely is the most ivipor- tanty and on which this romance, in particular, seemed to claim investi- gation.
The subject to which we allude is language. It is not on account of their taste, their poetry, their metrical, or any other beauty, that the old English or Norman romances are particularly interesting to the scholar.
Only he who cannot read Homer, or Ariosto, or Chaucer, or Spencer, or the masterpieces in the ancient northern literature, will bother himself with the pedant's investigation, seeking for beauties where there are none, or few.
I have found it! I am sorry to find that so little is done for the romance literature of our country, sir. I assure you it is very valuable.
It would have been worthy of Mr Madden to use the opportunity afforded by this poem for researches respecting the old English tongue.
That subject is one of comprehensive utility, and one which is sure amply to repay the noblest efforts. The ancient dialects of nations do not desert us in our path of inves- tigation where all other historical data fail : it is from them that we often must ascertain the abodes and migrations of ancient nations, their state of civilization, and mutual relationship.
It is of no moment, we humbly conceive, to our patriotic feeling now- a-days, whether the Norman or English romances are oldest, as the poetical glory which is to be reaped from these sources is so exceeding petiU and has been entirely superseded by the works of genius in latter ages.
Yet, for the history of language, this same fact is of moment ; and the history of language itself is of importance for every purpose for which history itself is so ; nay, the history of language is the most important part of the history of man, as speech is the very agent by which all the most important changes and revolutions in the world could have been effected.
But we must stop here, not having room for what we have to say. Still it is written in old English and not in Saxon, for here the whole Saxon system of inflexions is entirely gone.
As a relic, however, of a language so closely related to Danish Saxon, it is valuable, as pro- bably it is the only thing in its kind, unless Lazamon's translation of Wace's " Le Brut" be written in the same dialect.
Not having seen Lazamon's work, we cannot form any positive opinion on the subject. We shall here give a few of the old Danish words we observed during our cursory reading.
Lax, a salmoD,. Lieyken, to play,. Gad, a sharp-pointed Ertchebishop, Drepen, to kill,. And many others, for there is certainly more than a sufficient number to establish our theory.
In the same manner, and upon the same principle, we were enabled to ascertain the meaning of a few words which Mr Madden has left without interpretation in his glossary.
Thertekene, v. Kaske, active, Icelandic kaskir. Teyte, allert, Icelandic tetir. Nay more, the very construction is the same as in the old Danish, for as we find here kaske and teyte, so kaskir ek teytir is very common in Icelandic verse.
Led, , seems to be nothing else but the lid of some pot, or goblet, or pan. Therlj 1 78, is a manifest slip, instead of yerL The cha- racters used in this, as well as other old MSS.
Denemak, v. Thos her tile, v. Worn so hire to gode thoucte; And that he shuld hire yeue The best man that micthe live, The beste, fayreste, the strangest ok; That dede he him sweren on the bok.
And than shulde he Engelond, Al bitechen into hire bond. As soon as his burial was over. Earl Goderich lost no time in taking steps for the establishment of his own dynasty ; and, for this purpose, he first received oaths of allegiance from all classes of people in England.
But when the princess Ooldebaraw began to grow up he enclosed her in a strong castle, allowing no person to have any communication with her.
Thinking his dynasty sufficiently well established, he went to the tower where he had enclosed the children, and nearly starved them to death, and, pretending to play with the princesses, he cut the throats of both of them; but when they were going.
Godard told him that the only guerdon he would get would be the gallows. There he lived several years, supporting himself and family by fishing, the prince, who now grew very stout and strong, assisting him in carrying the fish to market ; but as Grim found his means fast decreasing, he at length was obliged to send the prince adrift.
Almost naked, he came to the kitchen of Earl Goderich, where he was received as a helper, and soon distin- guished himself by his extraordinary strength ; when he had got on a new suit of clothes, which the kitchenmaid lent him, he was by everybody thought to be the most beautiful man that ever was seen.
When Gode- HAVELOK THE DANE. This feat being reported to Goderich, and that he withal was so eminently good tempered that he never did harm to any body, he thought that this person would fulfil all the requisites which Athelwold had stipu- lated for his daughter in her husband, and being low-born, as he thought, he would not be a person to claim the kingdom of England at his hands.
He then sent for the princess, and, much against her will, married her to Havelok. Being provided with nothing wherewithal to support himself and his wife, he instantly, after the wedding, went with her to Grimsby.
Old Grim was dead, but he found his children rather in a state of afflu- ence; they received him and the princess with open arms, offered to them all they had, and only wished to be servants to the princely couple.
Here Havelok had a dream or two, which Ooldehorow interpreted, and said that they foreboded that he was to become king of Denmark and England.
She moreover advised him instantly to set sail for Denmark. Thus far the first verses. The rest the imagination of the reader will easily supply.
All these are facts and events which every reader, who is at all acquainted with the romances from this age, will easily anticipate, as they have all a very similar conclusion, and almost in every case a fortunate one.
The poem is supposed to consist of 3, verses, but about 1 70 verses are wanting in the middle of it. The story of these cannot be supplied from the French romance, as the whole narrative is so very different.
To attempt to harmonize the incidents of this romance with any event in history, would be fruitless. There is nothing in Danish history in the remotest degree connected with them, or resembling them.
The undoubted historical fact to which Mr Madden alludes, that Hakon, the son of Harold 56 ROMANCE OF HAVELOK THE DANE. Fairhair, King of Norway, was educated at the court of King Athelstane of England, bears no resemblance whatever to the romance of Havelok; nor are the circumstances in this fiction and that history at all similar.
Moreover, Denmark and Norway were at this period two distinct king- doms, and often at war between themselves; a fact which, in the thirteenth century, could not be unknown to any romance writer in England, as fre- quently Norwegians were the allies of the English when the Danes were their foes, and vice versa.
A detailed account of them is found in Snorro's Heimskeingla. The evil fame of this party was certainly far spread over Northern Europe in the century in which they flourished and the subsequent one, and no doubt reached Great Britain.
The romancer wanted only a foreign name to his outlandish king, and the name of the Norwegian party occurred to his memory as remarkably foreign-sounding, and therefore it was chosen.
The French romance gives to the same king the name of Gunter, which he doubtless borrowed from Germany.
The French poet also wanted a foreign name, and nothing else. Thus, though the name of Birkahein be of little con- sequence in itself, it helps us to ascertain the age of the English Haveloky at least thus far, that we can safely say this romance was written subse- quent to the period of the Norwegian Birkibein's.
The name of Havelok can be explained from the local traditions of Grimsby respecting him. KEMARKS UPON THE BANNATYNE CLUB.
The Bannatyne Club was instituted at Edinburgh in February We are not aware that any Noble or Right Honourable person has made any offering in the shape of old MSS.
There are others, too, who appear to be only snoring partners in the concern. Was ever time and money more egregiously misapplied?
What benefit is the public to derive from reprinting old trash? If they are determined to confine their attention to Scotish history and antiquities, why not print'the best works on these subjects?
A Bannatynian is a sort of literary scavenger, whose duty it is to save from oblivion all kinds of rubbish. He is a " resurrectionist of old parchments," as Dr Chalmers very appro- priately designates him.
The difference between us is this — that we attend to the value of a book or MS. A Bannatynian never thinks of printing a modem work; he only thinks of getting something curious and rare, something musty and antique.
It seems to be a thing under- stood that nothing of a modem aspect shall be admitted; and we verily believe that any attempt to deviate from the good old path would be looked upon as a damnable heresy.
Nothing can exceed the unbounded affection which a Bannatynian bears to an old MS. Another word with the Bannatyne Club at parting. These productions are much upon a par with the penny ballads sung in the streets.
These are small and insignificant personages, who, lacking the brain to produce any thing original, yet marvellously afflicted with the cacoethes scribendh endeavour to gain a reputation for author- ship by writing a preface to an old book.
They are Bannatynians on a small scale, and content themselves with 12mos, and now and then an 8vo. In this shape, books of songs and ballads, the life of somebody or other, and the genealogy of the Lord knows whom, ever and anon make their appearance, with the important nota bene — " only 50 copies printed.
Sir James Turner, even by his own account of the matter, was a regular miUtary adventurer, utterly regardless of all principle with reference to the cause in which he drew his sword, and quite the prototype of Major Dalgetty, and all that tribe of chevaliers, who were equally ready to sabre their countrymen for hire, and to " smoak some hundred countrey fellows out of a cave as they doe foxes," without the slightest compunction or remorse.
Sir James was therefore a fit instrument for carrying into efiect the cruelties which were perpetrated in his day and generation. It is not our purpose to go into any details of the contents of this volume; but it is well worth reading, and contains many singular traits, both of indivi- dual and of political character, prior and subsequent to the Restoration of Charles the Second.
FROM M. XXXII TO M. This quarto volume of pages, though printed by the Bannatyne Club of Scotland, has, fortunately in our opinion, been considered the repository of so much curious matter as to justify the general publi- cation of a limited number of copies.
When we state that this autobio- graphy of Sir James Turner furnishes the remarkable history of the prototype of the famous Dugald Dalgetty, we say enough to interest every reader in the work But it is still more important in a higher point of view, being one of those narratives which throws a certain light over the times of which it treats, and enables posterity to compare conflicting testimonies, so as to elicit the truth — to form correct ideas of men and things — and, while fairly appreciating political and national concerns, enlivens the reader with those glimpses of inferior character and domestic manners which are more agreeable and entertaining.
Of the authenticity of this manuscript no doubt whatever can exist; it bears internal evidence of its fidelity, which is far stronger than even the satisfactory account of its transmission to the present day, furnished by the preface.
We miss, however, a slight biographical sketch of the writer's lineage and family. Serving with this regiment, and its English companion under Colonel Ashton, our hero took part in many a bloody fray, and became inured to the hardships and privations, which, alternating with plunderings and excesses, made the soldier of fortune of that period.
I was lodged in a widows house, whose daughter, a young widow, had been married to a ritt-master - of the em- perors.
She was very handsome, wittie, and discreet; of her, thogh my former toyle might have banished all love thoughts out of my mind, I became perfectlie enamoured.
Heere we stayd sixe weeks, in which time she taught me the Hie Dutch, to reade and write it, which before I could not learne hot very rudlie from sojors.
Haveing then the countrey language, I learned also the fashions and customes of the Germane oflBh cers ; and about this time was both regiments reducd to tuo companies; tuo captaine lieutenants, and tuo ensigneys whereof I was one , onlie ordained to stand ; all the rest casheered, and in great necessitie and povertie.
The tuo companies were bot badlieused, tossed to and fro, in constant danger of ane enemie, and without pay. Bot I had leamd so much cunning, and became so vigilant to lay hold on opportunities, that I wanted for nothing, horses, clothes, meate, nor moneys; and made so good use of what I had learned, that the whole time I servd in Germanic I sufiferd no such miserie as I had done the first yeare and a halfe that I came to it.
Upon our approach they retird; bot thogh we were tuo to one against them at least, and that Bigod, who commanded them, made a stand at Eshvegen, yet did we retire in great haste, thogh in good order, back to Cassels, the land- graves residence and capitall citie, and left the poor countrey to the mercy of ane enraged enemie, who had order by fire and sword to force the landgrave to accept of the peace of Prague.
Neither did Bigod spare to bum three faire tonnes, Eschvegen, Olendorpe, and Vitsen- hausen, before our eyes. A mournfull sight it was, to see the whole people folow us, and climbe the tuo hie rockes which flanked us.
Old and young left their houses, by the losse of them and their goods to save their lives. Aged men and women, many above fourscore, most lame or blind, supported by their sonnes, daughters, and grandchildren, who themselves carried their little ones on their bac es, was a ruthfull object of pitie to any tender-hearted Christian, and did shew us with what dreadfull countenance that bloodie monster of warre can appear in the world.
After tuo days necessare stay at Gottenberg, I hired a boat, and went away in the evening ; we rowed all night; and haveing pasd tuo Suedish castles, about breake of day we came neere Millstrand.
Understanding the wind blew faire for both ships, I was advised to step out and goe a-foot straight thorough the 64 TURNER'S MEMOIRS OF HIS toune to the shoare, it being the neerer cut, whill the boat went a greatef way about with my servant and coffer.
I did so, and came just there as the Englishman was hoyseing his sailes. I askd him if he wold give me passage to Hull a place I have since beene too well acquainted with , who told me he wold with all his heart, provided I wold presentlle step in.
This onlie, hinderd me to present my endeavours to serve the king against the Covenanters. I calld instantlie for the Dane who was bound for Scotland, resolving to serve either the one or the other without any reluctance of mind; so deeplie was that base maxime rooted in my heart.
The people pointed with their fingers to the ship, which had got a great way out from the shoare, and stayd there for a passenger whom the skip- per had promisd to carry to Edinburgh.
He was ane old man, who at taking his farewell of his friends the night before had drunke so much that he had sleepd his time. Immediatelie I clapd in fresh men in my boate, the others being overweried with rowing, and so came to the ship ; neither did the skipper make any scruple to ressave me, thogh at first he conceaved his old man was in my companie.
To the neglect of this old man, nixt to all-ruleing providence, may I attribute my goeing at that time to Scot- land. On the sixth day after my embarkeing, we saw ourselves not farre from Aberdeene.
I was glad we were so farre north, because I had heard the kings ships were in the firth; hot I was mistaken, for they were gone; and no matter they had been gone sooner, for any good service they did the king there.
The skipper set me ashore at a place called the Cove; from thence I hired horses to Edinburgh. This was in the month of September; and Generall Leslie haveing marchd into England with a numerous armie at the Lambes before, and put my Lord Conway with some of the kings forces to a shameful retreat at Newbume, and made himself master of Neucastle and all the bishoprick of Durham, I found this successe had elevated the minds of my countreymen in generall to such a height of vanitie, that most of them thought, and many said, they sould quicklie make a full conquest of England.
Bot the truth is, it was never offerd to me ; everie one thinking it was impossible I could get into any charge, unles I had taken the Covenant either in Scotland or England.
In the woods of Kilwam- ing we rencountered some hundreths of the rebells, who, after a short dispute, fled. These who were taken got bot bad quarter, being all shot dead.
This was too much used by both English and Scots all along in that warre; a thing inhumane and disavouable, for the crueltie of one enemie cannot excuse the inhumanitie of ane other.
And heerin also their revenge ovcrmasterd their discretion, which sould have taught them to save the lives of these they tooke, that the rebells might doe the like to their prisoners.
Then we marchd straight to the Neurie, where the Irish had easilie seizd on his majesties castle, wherin they found abund- ance of ammunition, which gave them confidence to proclaime their rebellion.
The fortification of the toune being bot begunne, it came immediatelie in our hands; bot the rebells that were in the castle keepd it tuo days, and then deliverd it up upon a very ill-made accord, or a very ill-keepd one ; for the nixt day most of them, with many merchands and tradesmen of the toune, who had not beene in the castle, were carried to the bridge and butcherd to death, some by shooting, some by hanging, I 66 TURNER'S MEMOIRS OF HIS and some by drowning, without any legal processe; and I was verilie informed afterwards, that severall innocent people suffered.
Monro did not at all excuse himselfe from haveing accession to that carnage, nor coulde he purge himselfe of it; thogh my Lord Conway, as marshall of Ireland, was the principall actor.
Our sojors who sometimes are cruell, for no other reason hot because mans wicked nature leads him to be so, as I have shoune in my discourse of crueltie , seeing such prankes playd by authoritie at the bridge, thought they might doe as much any where els; and so runne upon a hundreth and fiftie women or thereby, who had got together in a place below the bridge, whom they resolved to massacre by killing and drouning ; which villainie the sea seemed to favour, it being then flood.
This exe- cution had not the successe which Conway and Monro had promisd themselves ; for instead of terrifieing the rebells from their wonted cruel- ties, it enraged them, and occasioned the murthering of some hundreths of prisoners whom they had in their pouer.
Sir Phelomey Oneale, the ringleader of the rebellion, hearing of the losse of the Neurie, in a beast- lie furie burnt the toune of Armagh, where he then was, and as much of the cathedrall as fire could prevaile over, and then retird himselfe to the woods and bogs.
Accordingly I went thither with the armie ; we tooke our march thorough the woodes and mountaines of Morne, where severall rebells were killd, and many cows taken, I do remember that there we sufferd one of the most stormie and tempestuous nights for haile, raine, cold, and excessive wind thogh it was in the beginning of May , that ever I yet saw.
All the tents were in a trice bloune over. It was not possible for any match'e to keepe fire, or any sojor to handle his musket, or yet to stand; yea severalls of them dyed that night of meere cold.
So that if the rebells, whereof OWN LIFE AND TIMES. Our sojors, and some of our officers too who suppose that no thing that is more then ordinarie can be the product of nature , attributed this hurrikan to the devilish skill of some Irish witches; and if that was true, then I am sure their master gave us good proofe that he was reallie prince of the aire.
The generall was very dissatisfied with this bond of union, as he had reason ; and at first spoke hie language of gtrikeing heads of; but the officers, sticking close one to another, made these threates evanish in smoake.
And, indeed, it is like ane active gene- rall who could have added policie to courage, and divided them might have made their union appear in its oune collors, which were even these of blacke mutinie.
Bot the Earle of Leven, not being able to overmaster it, got himselfe ane errand to go to Scotland, and so gave an everlasting adieu to Ireland.
The most remarkeable thing he did in the time of his stay was, that he tooke b. And trulie this earle, who lived till he past fourscore, was of so good a memorie that he was never knowne to forget himselfe, nay, not in his extreame age.
I cannot say more of his deportments in Ireland than what my Lord Vis- count Moore who was killd nixt yeare said to tuo of my friends, and it was this: That the Earle of Leven's actions made not such a noyse in the world as these of Generall Lesley.
Here he played over the old game, fighting on the one side and tampering with the other; and he points out one particular occasion, in which, if the design had been successfully effected, the king's cause would in all pro- bability have triumphed, in consequence of his own and other regiments going over, at a critical emergency, to the Marquess of Montrose.
And we find now a characteristic touch of his personal conduct — " Haveing drunke at one time too much at parting with a great person, rideing home I met one Colonell Wren, betueene whom and me there was some animositie.
He was a foot, and I lighted from my horse; drinke prevailing over my reason, I forced him to draw his sword, which was tuo grit handfuUs longer than mine.
This I perceiving, gripd his suord with my left hand, and thrust at him with my right; hot he stepping backe, avoyded it and drew his suord away, which left so deepe a wound betueene my thumbe and foremost finger that I had almost losd the use of both, unles I had been well cured.